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Olive green silhouettes denote North American species with South American ancestors; blue silhouettes denote South American species of North American origin.

The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.

In this understanding, Marcion saw the attribution of this gospel to Luke the Evangelist as a fabrication, so he began what he saw as a restoration of the original gospel as given to Paul.

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The migration peaked dramatically around three million years (Ma) ago during the Piacenzian age.

It resulted in the joining of the Neotropic (roughly South America) and Nearctic (roughly North America) ecozones definitively to form the Americas.

Metatherians (and a few xenarthran armadillos like Macroeuphractus) were the only South American mammals to specialize as carnivores; their relative inefficiency created openings for nonmammalian predators to play more prominent roles than usual (similar to the situation in Australia).

Sparassodonts and giant opossums shared the ecological niches for large predators with fearsome flightless "terror birds" (phorusrhacids), whose closest extant relatives are the seriemas.

The occurrence of the interchange was first discussed in 1876 by the "father of biogeography", Alfred Russel Wallace. Scott, Bryan Patterson, George Gaylord Simpson and S. After the late Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana, South America spent most of the Cenozoic era as an island continent whose "splendid isolation" allowed its fauna to evolve into many forms found nowhere else on Earth, most of which are now extinct.

Wallace had spent 1848–1852 exploring and collecting specimens in the Amazon basin. Its endemic mammals initially consisted primarily of metatherians (marsupials and sparassodonts), xenarthrans, and a diverse group of native ungulates: notoungulates (the "southern ungulates"), litopterns, astrapotheres, pyrotheres and xenungulates.

The differences in the texts below highlight the Marcionite view that Jesus did not follow the Prophets and that the earth is evil.

Late 19th- and early 20th-century theologian Adolf von Harnack, in agreement with the traditional account of Marcion as revisionist, theorized that Marcion believed there could be only one true gospel, all others being fabrications by pro-Jewish elements, determined to sustain worship of Yahweh; and that the true gospel was given directly to Paul the Apostle by Christ himself, but was later corrupted by those same elements who also corrupted the Pauline epistles.

They also produced a number of familiar-looking body types that represent examples of parallel or convergent evolution: one-toed Thoatherium had legs like those of a horse, Pachyrukhos resembled a rabbit, Homalodotherium was a semi-bipedal clawed browser like a chalicothere, and horned Trigodon looked like a rhino.

Both groups started evolving in the Lower Paleocene, possibly from condylarth stock, diversified, dwindled before the great interchange, and went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene.

Paleognath birds (ratites and South American tinamous) may have migrated by this route around the same time, more likely in the direction from South America to Australia/New Zealand.

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