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The challenging part of researching these early pies is most of us rely on translators of original texts.These can vary according to scholarly proficiency and educated interpretation.254) "If the basic concept of 'a pie' is taken to mean a mixture of ingredients encased and cooked in pastry, then proto-pies were made in the classical world and pies certainly figured in early Arab cookery.

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Pie can be closed, open, small, large, savory or sweet.

The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.

A piecrust used less flour than bread and did not require anything as complicated as a brick oven for baking.

More important, though, was how pies could stretch even the most meager provisions into sustaining a few more hungry mouths...

195) ---Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome, Patrick Faas [Palgrave Mac Millan: New York] 2003 ? Bakers who specialized in this treat were known as the episat mersi, so mersu-making was probably an involved and respected process." ---Cooking in Ancient Civilizations, Cathy K. 254) American pies "As a favored dish of the English, pies were baked in America as soon as the early settlers set up housekeeping on dry land.

Beyond mere preference, howevers, there was a practical reason for making pies, especially in the harsh and primitive conditions endured by the first colonists.

No one, least of all the early settlers, would probably proclaim their early pies as masterpieces of culinary delight.

The crusts were often heavy, composed of some form of rough flour mixed with suet." ---Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Andrew F.

Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).

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