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As an alternative, Ludwig proposes the insulin model, which states that the primary cause of obesity is excessive insulin action on fat cells, which in turn is caused principally by rapidly-digesting carbohydrate.

According to this model, too much insulin reduces blood levels of glucose and fatty acids (the two primary circulating metabolic fuels), simultaneously leading to hunger, fatigue, and fat gain.

The book: So what does cause this fattening effect?

Chief among these signals is the hormone leptin, but many others play a role (insulin, ghrelin, glucagon, CCK, GLP-1, glucose, amino acids, etc.) The Hungry Brain is part of Guyenet’s attempt to explain this third model, and it basically succeeds.

But like many “third way” style proposals, it leaves a lot of ambiguity.

But to be more scientific about it, the specific things involved are some combination of sweet/salty/umami tastes, certain ratios of fat and sugar, and reinforced preferences for certain flavors.

Modern food isn’t just unusually rewarding, it’s also unusually bad at making us full.

Did you know there are entire premodern cultures where literally nobody is obese? That the prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980?

Researchers have been keeping records of how much people eat for a long time, and increased food intake since 1980 perfectly explains increased obesity since 1980 – there is no need to bring in decreased exercise or any other factors.The brain has some pretty sophisticated mechanisms to determine when we’ve eaten enough; these usually involve estimating food’s calorie load from its mass and fiber level.But modern food is calorically dense – it contains many more calories than predicted per unit mass – and fiber-poor.In the 1970s, scientists wanted to develop new rat models of obesity.This was harder than it sounded; rats ate only as much as they needed and never got fat.var $jscomp=;$jscomp.define Property="function"==typeof Object.define Properties? Object.define Property:function(b,a,c);$Global=function(b);$$Global(this);$jscomp. SYMBOL_PREFIX="jscomp_symbol_"; $Symbol=function();$jscomp.symbol Counter_=0;$jscomp. Symbol=function(b); $Symbol Iterator=function();$jscomp.array Iterator=function(b)function y(a,b)function A(a)function E(a,b,c)function v(a,b,c)function G(a,b,c,e,d)function F(a,b,c,d)function H(a)function z(a,b)function u(a,b,c)c.d(a,"h",function());c.d(a,"create Element",function());c.d(a,"clone Element",function());c.d(a,"Component",function());c.d(a,"render",function());c.d(a,"rerender",function());c.d(a,"options",function());var r=, D=[], C=[], M="function"==typeof b? 1, Q=;l(z.prototype,);a["default"]=}).call(a,c(6))},function(b),function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c),function(b),function(b, a,c),function(b),function(b,a,c),function(b),function(b),function(b),function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c){function d(a)function g(a,b)function f(a,b)function l(a,b)function n(a,b),function(b, a,c),function(b,a),function(b,a),function(b,a), function(b,a,c),function(b,a,c){(function(a){!

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